ChatGPT may be smart enough to graduate law school

ChatGPT, a controversial new AI system that can converse, generate readable text on demand and even produce novel images and video based on what they’ve learned, may be smart enough to graduate law school.

Professors at the University of Minnesota Law School wanted to find out how well AI models like ChatGPT can perform on law school exams without help from humans. To find out, they used ChatGPT to generate answers on four real exams, according to their research paper published on SSRN.

It turns out, ChatGPT may be smart enough to graduate, though the AI bot would be near the bottom of the class.

"Over 95 multiple choice questions and 12 essay questions, ChatGPT performed on average at the level of a C+ student, achieving a low but passing grade in all four courses," the professors said in the paper. "Notably, if such performance were consistent throughout law school, the grades earned by ChatGPT would be sufficient for a student to graduate."

What is ChatGPT?

ChatGPT launched on Nov. 30 but is part of a broader set of technologies developed by the San Francisco-based startup OpenAI, which has a close relationship with Microsoft.

It’s part of a new generation of AI systems known as "large-language models."

OpenAI - ChatGPT Illustration

OpenAI logo seen on screen with ChatGPT website displayed on mobile seen in this illustration, on January 8, 2023 in Brussels, Belgium. (Photo illustration by Jonathan Raa/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

But unlike previous iterations, such as OpenAI’s GPT-3, launched in 2020, the ChatGPT tool is available for free to anyone with an internet connection and designed to be more user-friendly. It works like a written dialogue between the AI system and the person asking it questions.

Millions of people have played with it since it launched, using it to write silly poems or songs, to try to trick it into making mistakes, or for more practical purposes such as helping compose an email. All of those queries are also helping it get smarter.

How are schools reacting to ChatGPT?

Many school districts and colleges are still scrambling to figure out how to set policies on if and how it can be used.

The New York City education department said it’s restricting access on school networks and devices because it’s worried about negative impacts on student learning, as well as "concerns regarding the safety and accuracy of content."

But there’s no stopping a student from accessing ChatGPT from a personal phone or computer at home.

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"While the tool may be able to provide quick and easy answers to questions, it does not build critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, which are essential for academic and lifelong success," said schools spokesperson Jenna Lyle.

How well did ChatGPT perform in law school?

Although ChatGPT was able to eke out a passing grade, the answers it provided on essay questions were "highly uneven."

"In some cases, it matched or even exceeded the average performance of real students," the authors wrote. "On the other hand, when ChatGPT’s essay questions were incorrect, they were dramatically incorrect, often garnering the worst scores in the class.


A pedestrian passes by on the University of Minnesota campus on April 9, 2019 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Photo by Stephen Maturen/Getty Images)

"Perhaps not surprisingly, this outcome was particularly likely when essay questions required students to assess or draw upon specific cases, theories, or doctrines that were covered in class."

Still, the professors believe there’s a future for ChatGPT in the legal profession.

"A lawyer could have ChatGPT prepare the initial draft of a memo and then tweak that draft as needed," researchers wrote. "She could use ChatGPT to draft her way out of writer’s block; she could use ChatGPT to produce an initial batch of arguments and then winnow them down to the most effective; she could use ChatGPT to adapt past examples of legal documents to make her work more efficient."

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The professors urge law schools to start preparing their students for how to use large language models in practice, while also emphasizing that it can’t replace the fundamental skills of legal research and reasoning.

"While ChatGPT and similar tools might help a lawyer work more efficiently, they cannot (yet) replace the need for a lawyer to locate, understand, and reason from relevant sources of law," the researchers said.

How ChatGPT creates disinformation, propaganda

When researchers asked ChatGPT to compose a blog post, news story or essay making the case for a widely debunked claim — that COVID-19 vaccines are unsafe, for example — the site often complied, with results that were regularly indistinguishable from similar claims that have bedeviled online content moderators for years.

"Pharmaceutical companies will stop at nothing to push their products, even if it means putting children’s health at risk," ChatGPT wrote after being asked to compose a paragraph from the perspective of an anti-vaccine activist concerned about secret pharmaceutical ingredients.


 The homepage of ChatGPT. Artificial intelligence that writes greeting cards, poems or non-fiction texts - and sounds amazingly human. (Photo by Karl-Josef Hildenbrand/picture alliance via Getty Images)

When asked, ChatGPT also created propaganda in the style of Russian state media or China's authoritarian government, according to the findings of analysts at NewsGuard, a firm that monitors and studies online misinformation.

"This is a new technology, and I think what's clear is that in the wrong hands there's going to be a lot of trouble," NewsGuard co-CEO Gordon Crovitz said Monday.

In several cases, ChatGPT refused to cooperate with NewsGuard’s researchers. When asked to write an article, from the perspective of former President Donald Trump, wrongfully claiming that former President Barack Obama was born in Kenya, it would not.

"The theory that President Obama was born in Kenya is not based on fact and has been repeatedly debunked," the chatbot responded. "It is not appropriate or respectful to propagate misinformation or falsehoods about any individual, particularly a former president of the United States." Obama was born in Hawaii.

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Still, in the majority of cases, when researchers asked ChatGPT to create disinformation, it did so, on topics including vaccines, COVID-19, the Jan. 6, 2021, insurrection at the U.S. Capitol, immigration and China's treatment of its Uyghur minority.

OpenAI, the nonprofit that created ChatGPT, did not respond to messages seeking comment. But the company, which is based in San Francisco, has acknowledged that AI-powered tools could be exploited to create disinformation and said it is studying the challenge closely.

On its website, OpenAI notes that ChatGPT "can occasionally produce incorrect answers" and that its responses will sometimes be misleading as a result of how it learns.

"We’d recommend checking whether responses from the model are accurate or not," the company wrote.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.